Although created in 1893 by Caleb Bradham and under the name “Brad’s Drink,” it was renamed “Pepsi-Cola” on this day in 1898. The name comes from the root of the word “dyspepsia” and the kola nuts that were used in the recipe. Bradham’s goal was to create a fountain drink that would aid in digestion and boost energy. Up until 1903, Bradham bottled his Pepsi-Cola from his drugstore. Later, he rented a warehouse and sold 7,968 gallon of syrup. In 1904, Pepsi was sold in six-ounce bottles increasing sales up to 19,848 gallons. The drink was marketed as “Delicious and Healthful.” In 1931, the cola company entered bankruptcy. It was sold to Roy C. Megargel who then sold it to Charles Guth, a candy manufacturer, who had retail stores that also had soda fountains. His plan was to swap out the Coca-Cola served there with Pepsi. In 1936, Pepsi became available in a 12-ounce bottle which rivaled Coca-Cola which was only available in 6.5 ounce bottles but sold at the same price. During the 1940’s, the soda began to target marketing African Americans believing that they were an untapped market and instead of portaying them in a stereotypical manner, Pepsi ads treated Afican Americans with respect. However, there was some backlash from some fearing that the ads would drive away white Americans. Never settling for being the #2 selling cola, Pepsi introduced The Pepsi Challenge in 1975 encouraging people to do blind taste tests of Coke and Pepsi to see which cola they preferred. While many people who did the test were surprised by the results and some long time Coke fans began to prefer Pepsi, Coke still remained on top.
American civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his famous, “I Have a Dream” speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC on this day in 1963. Spoken to over 250,000 people, King called for an end to racism in the U.S. and has been considered the defining moment of the American Civil Rights Movement. After minutes of a prepared speech, Luther improvised on the “dream” theme: “I still have a dream, a dream deeply rooted in the American dream – one day this nation will rise up and live up to its creed, ‘We hold these truths to be self evident: that all men are created equal.’ I have a dream...”