This Day in Pop Culture for July 1

The "Great Railroad Strike" began on July 1, 1922.
The Great Railroad Strike of 1922 Begins
Sometimes known as the Railway Shopmen’s Strike, the Great Railroad Strike began on this day in 1922 when seven of the 16 railroad labor organizations voted to walk off the job. While much of the United States was recovering financially from war time, that wasn’t extended to railway workers. At the time, a 9-member panel known as the Railroad Labor Board was given the power to oversee the wages and working conditions of the American railway workers and approved deep wage cuts. However, these wage cuts did not affect the “Big Four railway brotherhoods” or several other unions at the time. With about 400,000 workers stopping work, it became the largest American strike of any kind since the Great Steel Strike of 1919. In some towns, some shop owners would no longer sell their wares to strikebreakers while others would offer free items to those who were striking. Families also got involved throwing sour milk, rotten eggs and rotten produce to strikebreakers. It is believed that at least ten people were killed in connection to the strike. President Harding offered a mediated solution on July 11, 1922 that would have recognized the worker’s grievances and regard them as people with "the same indisputable right to work as others have to decline work,” but it was rejected. He proposed a settlement on July 28 that wouldn’t have given much to the unions, but the railroads still rejected the compromise. Finally, Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty, who opposed the unions, pushed for national action and on September 1 Judge James H. Wilkerson issued an injuction against all kinds of activities related to striking which violated many constitutional guarantees of free speech, but it ended the strike.


MPAA introduced the PG-13 rating on July 1984.

PG-13 Rating is Introduced

Since 1968, the Motion Picture Association of America's (MPAA) film-rating system has used in the United States to rate a film's suitability for certain audiences. The ratings were “G” (General Audiences), PG (Parent’s Guidance Suggested), R (Restricted to those under the age of 17) and X (X-rated). However, in the early 1980s, complaints began to come about regarding the violence and gore in films such as Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (Directed by Steven Spielberg) and Gremlins (Executive Produced by Spielberg). Spielberg suggested a new intermediate rating between "PG" and "R" which became the "PG-13" rating on this day in 1984. The advisory given: "Parents Are Strongly Cautioned to Give Special Guidance for Attendance of Children under 13 – Some Material May Be Inappropriate for Young Children.” Red Dawn was the first movie released with this new rating.


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